Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard. Abstract: A new physics with a variable background velocity of light has been developed. This velocity can be time dependent or space dependent. The last case is treated here. As consequences follow the attraction law of Newton and the motion of the perihel is absent. The last motion can be explained by classical methods. This means that general relativity is not valid and is therefore a false doctrine. The proof of this statement is given in the following lines. The controversy about the general relativity started at the beginning and goes still on nowadays. After the great works of the founders of classical physics an absolute time and space was established. In fact nothing has proved the contrary and the so called revolution of space and time has obscured classical notions e.g. energy and force. The general principle of relativity is not valid and the corresponding geometrization has its limits. The following proof is not based on a principle but is founded on the hydrogen atom or on energy and momentum. Instead of a dogma of a constant velocity of light a variable velocity of light in the background dependent on space x according to the proportional factors k(x) and k*(x) gives the results: 1. The constancy of energy E=mcc implies a mass m~1/kk and a velocity v~k, the momentum is p=mv~1/k. So the length is r~k (also shown with the hydrogen atom or the Broglie wave). 2. The constancy of momentum p=mv implies m~1/k* and an energy E~k*. Therefore the length is r~1. 3. For the theory of the gravitational field points 1 and 2 are to be combined, e.g. with ~kk* for the velocity of light. In the case of spherical symetry one has k=k*. 4. A metric can be defined as a function of light in a fixed or a moving background and viceversa. 5. The function k(r) or k*(r) follows from an energy balance (here k for k*) with the restenergy m(r)c(r)c(r)~k(r) of the mass in motion in the field of the fixed mass M (distance r) and the constant of gravitation G, namely k(r)=1+integral from infinity to r of dr GMk/cckkrr. After differentiation with respect to r one gets the differential equation k`=GM/cckrr, which has the solution kk=1-2GM/ccr. More general k follows from a momentum balance of light. 6: Analogous to the light the velocity field allows with the matter wave l=h/p and the momentum p from ccpp=EE- momocccc to derive the law of attraction of Newton. E is the constant total energy (kinetic and potential energy) and the restmass which depends on the velocity of light. For this reason the rotation of the perihel is absent, contrary to the result of general relativity. In fact this rotation follows at first from the quadrupolmoment out of the flattening of the sun by the law of attraction of Newton and secondly by the contribution of the negative energy of the gravitational field to the attractive mass of the sun. The case of a time variable velocity of light with attractive forces was treated else where (1) and the consequences of a negative field energy on the equivalence principle and black holes was analysed (2). The method explained gives a natural transition from quantum theory to classical mechanics. Further a new kind of particles the tomons can be postulated. Literature: (1) E.Muff, Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 71, Separanda 1, page 29, (1998). (2) Different manuscripts especialy: a) Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum. b) Aethersubstrat und Relativitaetstheorie. Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. 30.12.00
Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. Promovierter Theoretischer Physiker ETH. Graduated theoretical physicist of ETH. Works about space and time and atomic time standards in the watch industry. Director of a theoretical department of clock research for the improvement of clocks of mechanical and electronic nature especially for quartz clocks. Reliability engineering and material research in astronautics. Activity as instructor in telecommunication.
Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. 20 THESES ABOUT A RENEWED MECHANICS, ELECTRODYNAMICS, QUANTUM THEORY AND COSMOLOGY. Instead of a dogma of a constant velocity of light, a variable velocity of light in the background dependent on space and time according to the proportional factors k(t), k(x) and k*(x) gives the results: 1. The constancy of energy E = m c 2 implies a mass m ~ 1/k2 and a velocity v ~ k , the momentum is p = mv ~ 1/k . So the length is r ~ k. 2. The constancy of momentum p = mv implies m ~ 1/k* and an energy E ~ k* . Therefore the length is r ~ 1 . 3. In the case of cosmology point 1 with k = k(t) has to be used. 4. For the theory of the gravitational field point 1 and 2 are to be combined, e.g. with ~ k . k* for the velocity of light. In the case of spherical symmetry one has k = k*. The embeding in cosmology goes with point 3. The verification of the frequency proportional to k for a mechanical clock follows from an oscillating mass inverse proportional in k in power of three and the elastic constant following Coulomb inverse proportional to k. The same result follows from an angular oscillator where the inertional moment is inverse proportional to k and the angular elastic constant proprtional to k. For both oscillators are also verified the obove partial results. In the case of Einstein with velocity of light and mass proportional to one, the length proportional to k is for both oscillators the quadrat of the inverse frequency proportional to k in power of three, which is obviously false. It rests the relativistic case with length proportional to one. In both cases the frequency in proper time are proportional to one. In both cases with velocity of light and mass proportional to one, the energy however is not conserved. The global formulation presented here respects the energy conservation, the local relativistic however does not. Both formulations are therefore not aequivalent, because the global formulation gives the behaviour of masses, forces and elastic constants in the gravitational field. Physics is simple here, but not horrible simple, so that even contradictions follow. 5. The natural unity stick (also e.g. resonators) are proportional to the matter wave length l = h / p , where h is the quantum action. Therefore a background with a length of a measuring stick l ~ k and a foreground in a new gauge of the measuring stick l ~ 1 is given. A metric can be defined which is a function of the velocities of light in the background. 6. A differential equation of the second order for the metric g i j in the background (xo = ? ot c(t) dt , x ) or in the foreground ( t , x' = x / k ) determinates the unknown function c(t). The corresponding source term is the energy-momentum tensor. From this follows with a constant energy density e of the foreground the solution k(t) ~ c(t) ~ t - 1/2 . The metric with interaction (-g) 1/2 g i j gives after embeding of this solution a source term changed by the factor (-g) 1/2 . The constant energy density of the foreground e is proportional to 1 / k3 in the background. 7. From k = k(t) the redshift of the fixed galaxies can be calculated. Further a relation between the mean energy density e of the universe and the Hubble-constant follows. A big bang in the usual sense is not necessary. 8. The metric field has an exceptional position and must be distinguished from the scalar gravitational field. The gravitational field and the other physical fields give contributions to the energy-momentum tensor, which then determines the metric field. The metric field serves further preferentially to the calculation of the light velocities of the background, namely k(x) and k*(x). Moreover in the case of rotating masses by a diagonalisation of the metric tensor with a Galileitransformation the ether drag may be calculated. In manybody problems the motion of matter follows from a regular calculation of the metric tensor, by taking account that restmass, energy and momentum are space and time dependent. 9. The velocity field allows with the matter wave l = h / p and the momentum p from c2p2 = E2 - mo2 c4 and the total energy E (kinetic and potential energy) and the restmass which depends on the velocity of light to derive the law of attraction of Newton. Because the restmass mo depends on the velocity of light the rotation of the perihel is absent. This rotation follows in fact from the quadrupolmoment out of the flattening of the planets and the sun by the law of attraction of Newton. The method explained gives a natural transition from quantum theory and classical mechanics. 10. The function k(r) or k*(r) follows also from the restenergy m(r) c2 (r) ~ k(r) of the mass m in motion in the field of the fixed mass M (distance r ) and the constant of gravitation G, namely k(r) = 1 + ? 8r dr GMk / c2 k2 r2 . After differentiation with respect to r one gets the differential equation k' = GM / c2 k r2 , which has the solution k2 = 1 - 2GM / c2 r . 11. Reasonable definitions of force are possible in Minkowskian space (background) but not in Riemannian space (foreground). In the background the gravitational constant is G ~ k5 (with r ~ k ), but in the foreground G ~ k2 (with r ~ 1). The matter created in background proportional to 1/ k3 gives a constant intensity in foreground proportional to 1 (global). Local explanation: a) The creation of Fermi particles with density F and with the constant q1 follows from ?xo F = q1 or F ~ xo ~ t 1/2 . Temporal density of collisions ~ t - 1/2 . The cross section is proportional to m ~ 1/k2 , with the wave frequency n the particle energy is ~ h n ~ 1 . Creation of energy ~ ? ot t - 1/2 k -2 1 dt ~ t 3/2 ~ 1/k3. In the same way by continued conservation of energy k-1 k-2 = k-3. Hence for Fermi particles h ~ 1 . b) By analogy with Bose particles: ?xo2 F = q2 or F ~ xo2 ~ t . Temporal density of collisions ~ 1 . Cross section ~ m ~ 1/k2 (because Fermi particles collide), but with particle energy h n ~ k . Creation of energy ~ ? ot 1 k -2 k dt ~ t 3/2 ~ 1/k3. In the same way by continued conservation of energy k-2 k-2 k = k-3. Because the interaction is h n ~ k , one has G ~ k5 k2 ~ k7, for the factor k2 it is r ~ 1 . From the hydrogen atom one gets for the charge the relations e2 ~ k and h ~ k. Magnetic monopoles with charge p give ep ~h or ep ~ k . Definition of force: With the scalar gravitational potential F o and with the factor a the field strength is a ? F o / ? x (F o ~ 1) . From the energy r m a ? F o / ? x ~ 1 follows k k-2 a 1 ~ 1 and further a ~ k . Hence the force is ~ m k ? F o / ? x . Because G has to be replaced by G k2 the force is ~ k-2 k 1 k2 ~ k . 12. The last relation ~ k means, that at the beginning of the universe the attraction of the masses is very high. Because k ~ t - 1/2 this also means that the gravitation for the planets is decreasing. With the age of the earth T = 5.109 years one gets during the formation of the Alps t = 108 years a change of the force -t / 2T = -10-2 , which correponds to one percent decrease. The decrease of force yields a continueing expansion of the earth. Along most of the fissures of the tectonic plates this motor moves magma to the surface. This causes an underflow of the plates, which may be large (10 cm / year). 13. By the separation of the metric from the gravitation and the other fields a unification of the theory is possible. The field energy for interaction of gravitation has a negative sign. The ratio of this field energy to the corpuscular energy depends on the value of the last energy. It therefore follows that the principle of equivalence by Einstein for gravitational and inert masses is not exactly fulfilled. Small bodies are attracted with more strength. 14. The singularity of a black hole is removed with the negative gravitational energy. 15. The age of the universe is determined by the velocity of light in the background. E.g. from the time delay of light in which nearby objects of a supernova are illuminated. 16. The limits of geometrization: a) Energy and momentum and also the forces are not clearly defined in Riemannian space. Moreover the restmass is here constant in space and time. Often the results in Riemannian space are physical senseless and the theory is not unique. b) The metric has to be reduced to a variable velocity of light. These dependences of restmass, energy and momentum are shown by the hydrogen atom. But in Minkowskian space the forces and also the theory are unique. The curvature of space is not proved by the precession of the gyro on the satellite. Because classically the same result follows by the couple of forces of the gravitational field given by the difference of velocities of the gyro moving in the opposite directions in the path of the satellite. The centrifugal force gives a negative contribution , so that the total precession cancels.Satellite experiments with and without gyroscopes seem to confirm the effect of curvature of space and the drift of ether following general relativity. The angular momentum however remains not conserved in both cases. A renormalisation with additional couples of force with a dimensional analysis by variable velocity of light can fill this gap. In both cases the angular velocity is perpenticular to the plane of the satellite orbit or of the rotational plane of the earth. The additional couple of force is propertional to the vector product of the angular velocity and the angular momentum of the gyroscope. This is a new kind of force comparable to the Lorentz force. With the proportional factor (1-k.k), which goes to one for r=0 with the velocity of light zero is understandable but goes to zero for r goes to infinity, all this without curvature and ether. I.e. for the scalar field follows a couple of force, for a vector field the Lorentz force. For the metric tensor a scalar as couple of force and by contraction with temporal derivation of the momentum current a force, together a dyname. The metric tensor shows here his relation to the classical equation of motion. Especially the right hand side of the field equations of Einstein, i.e. the dependence of the energy-momentum tensor and the gravitation constant from the variable velocity of light are to be renormalized with the negative field energy firstly in solving the relativistic Poisson equation and fullfilling the constancy of the fine structure constant. For the early universe is also the left hand side concerned and the right hand side looks totally different. Here are also to be taken into account the quantum mechanics, therefore the naive theory which was born in an ivory tower is no more valid. Additional forces are also needed in the transition from local to global symetries for the movement of the perihelion. Conversely by the transition from global gauge invariance to local gauge invariance one finds new laws of nature. From false theories many physicists or scientists deduce right things, but from right theories should be deduced only right things. 17. The behaviour of measuring sticks and all kinds of clocks (light clocks, mechanical clocks, hydrogen atom and so on) is calculable. A philosophy for space and time is not requiered in this context. The attraction law of Coulomb can be deduced by a further factor k of the velocity of light. In place of GM for the gravitation is the charge of the first particle -e divided by the dielectric constant and 4 Pi, noteworthy multiplied with the charge of the second particle divided by the corresponding mass. Instead of the energy balance the momentum balance gives the same value of k for the local and charge bounded contraction of the measuring stick, the same is valid for the slowing of clocks. The difference consists in the fact that for gravitation the ratio is rest mass to rest energy at infinite distance of the particles. In contrary for the Coulomb law the ratio is electric charge to energy at infinite distance. In the derivation of the last case is to take account of the relation between group velocity and phase velocity. Because light quanta have no electric charge it gives no field effect but a local particle effect as guide field. In the contrary by the gravitation at first a field effect and secondly a particle effect are present, the last as mass with the group velocity and phase velocity analogous to the electric charge. In both cases the functions of the charges or masses can be interchanged. This factor goes to zero in the case of attraction for a small distance analogous to the gravitation. With the electron follows so the electron radius. Therefore a variable velocity of light describes the motion of masses or also the charges as propogation of waves. Along the surface of a body the electrons are repulsive, therefore k will be larger than one and the foreground velocity of light will there be larger than c, the calculated value has been verified experimentaly. In the same way follows from the two balances the Lorentz force. Instead of the space dependent velocity of light a time dependent velocity of light gives with a time integral of the product of the velocity of particle and the acceleration with the mass the kinetic energy (vv=GM/r). So results the length contraction of moving measuring sticks and the slowing of moving clocks. With the definition of synchronisation of clocks follows in this way again the Lorentztansformation, therefore the relation to special relativity is established which is a special case of a variable velocity of light. From this follows also the laws of electrodynamics, especially the relation of de Broglie from the time transformation. The electrodynamics ensures also the gauge transformation of wave mechanics. The energy and momentom balance can also be applied for the weak and strong interactions. The interaction range of the force will be reduced by an exponential factor with the exponent proportional to mass multiplied by distance. The proportional factor is the reciprocal of the elementary length and the proton mass, the mass itself is the vectorboson mass, what explains the short interaction range compared with the elementary length of the weak interaction. By interchange of the attractive masses follows the principal of action and reaction of Newton and the attraction law of Newton. In the case of many masses the potential for every mass with the remaining masses has to be used. By interchange of the attractive or repulsive charges follows the principal of reaction equal reaction and the attraction law of Coulomb. In the case of many charges the potential of every charge with the remaining charges has to be used. The propogation of light in a inhomogeneous material medium is given by the superposition of k in power of 2 as a function of space and time multiplied with the inverse local refraction index of the medium. The result is also the eikonal of the Hamilton-Jakobi equation. With the complex refraction index the real part for any real number defines a variable velocity of light, the imaginary part describes the negative or positive damping of the light wave. After the transition from k=0 the k is imaginary. It gives exponential increasing standing waves and exponential decreasing standing waves. The first case can correspond to a spontaneous creation of matter. It is possible that a system with structure k=0 and interaction exists. With the dispersion of electromagnetic waves the dielectric constant can decrease from positive values to negative values, this corresponds to an imagenary refractive index, which means also an imagenary light velocity. Therefore exponential growing or decreasing waves are possible, which can work as an amplifier. With the anamalous dispersion the group velocity is larger than the phase velocity of the waves, id est the modulated group goes faster than the support wave. Analogous is to assume with the matter wave. 18. New matter is continueously created in the universe by quantum processes. The observed background radiation may be connected to it. The quantum h n is divided by red shift through the frequency n , but by the creation of energy through a changed quantum action h. Because the gravitational constant in the universe is inverse proportional to the density of matter in power of 2/3, this constant is for galaxies with low density very large, so dark matter is not necessary. The same holds for removed Schwarzschild singularities, the mass will be much lower. By the formation of galaxies as a product of condensation the constant density of energy of the foreground decreases, so the velocity of light in the background increases and also k, therefore a further increase of the gravitation constant and an explanation of the coincidence problem follows. Inversely by a large energy density k and therefore the velocity of light is arbitrary small but not zero which is against black holes. Both effects work contrary to the energy density by forming a law of Lenz. Inside elementary particles the same facts are valid. These changes of the gravitational constant give a generalized attraction law of Newton. The k-dependences of the fundamental quantities of the universe lead to constant fine structure constants for electricity, gravitation, weak and strong interactions in the foreground and background. Constant fine structure constants exist for the same particle interactions, especially the gravitation field gives a k-variable gravitation constant which in the case of comparable attractive masses results in k-function without singularity. The different numerical values of these fine structure constants are explained from the coupling constants which go like k in power of 8 or k in power of 4 for gravitation or weak interaction. Therefore the unscreaned and naked gravitation constant is an order 40 of magnitude larger than the observed value. In this way the proton mass can be calculated from the Planck mass. The Planck-length and Planck-time go to the classical values. The foundations of the string theory are no longer valid. On the same line the electron mass can be calculated from the Planck-mass with the fine structure of weak interactions. If the gravitation constant in the expression for the Planck-mass is replaced by an expression of the coupling constant of weak interaction the neutrino mass follows, the Planck-length goes to the atom-length and the Planck-time goes to the atom-time. This shows the strong connection between electrical and weak interactions and also to the gravitational interactions. The background radiation is not a proof of the big-bang but a proof for a variable velocity of light in the background. In the case of the big-bang the wave length of light extends because of the space expansion. The same happens with material measuring sticks also as a system of waves. This results in a zero effect also for the frequency because the velocity of light is here constant. Totally different is the situation with variable velocity of light. The propogating light has a constant wave length in the background. Because the velocity of light is the product of wave length and frequency, with decreasing velocity of light also the frequency is reduced according to the observations. The wave length grows larger in foreground with decreasing lenghts of measuring sticks. The background radiation as blackbody radiation follows from the fact that the quantum action h and the absolute temperature T are proportional to the light velocity k, further the frequency of the radiation is also proportional to k. The naked gravitation constant leads to a Planck-time of 10 in power of -23 s with Protonmass as new Planck-mass compared with the value of 10 in power of -43 s with the old Planck-mass in the non renormalized theory. The inflation phase is no more present and for times shorter than 10 in power of -23 s is not defined and is also no more necessary, because for correlations the velocity of light in the background is here very large. The elementary length of 10 in power of -13 cm in the foreground and the elementary time of 10 in power of -23 s have a fundamental function as limits of physical quantities. Arbitrary large quantums are not possible. So also the special relativity has a restricted range of validity. For example the range of velocity in the Doppler effect is not arbitrary, because the frequency would be arbitrary large. The generalized weak or gravitational coupling constant with the dimension of the coupling constant divided by the dimension of a power of a velocity v with the respective fine structure constant leads to a geometrical pogression in v/c for the coupling constant. For v towards the velocity of light c results in a attraction force going to infinity. The gravitational constant is therefore also dependent on the velocity of the moving masses, relations to strong interaction are to be expected. The weak interaction with short interaction length give rise to electrical charge for the atomic interaction and further the weak interaction with large particle velocity gives rise to color charges for strong interaction. On this way electrical charge and color charge are determined. The electrical fine structure constant can be rewritten with magnetic charge as magnetic fine structure constant. These values are inverse. The unity is reached by renormalisation of the charges. The weak interaction of magnetic monopoles have longer interaction length and the atomic diameter is shorter than the elementary length, so magnetic monopoles are not to be expected. An other way consists to put the square of the electric charge proportional to k again as 10 in power of 5, this will give the fine structure of the magnetic charge and inverse. But the magnetic charge gives the contrary of a screaning but an increasing of the reduced naked charge. Therefore physically the magnetic fine structure remains unchanged. The energy of the electron can also be calculated from a large wave packet, which is compressed to the dimension of the electron. The electrical fine structure constant will be one. This gives the enlarged naked charge of the electron. During the Planck-time under chaotic conditions many laws are not strictly valid, so for example matter without antimatter will appear. A further possibility of the weak fine structure constant consists that electron mass correponds to the neutron mass, the coupling constant is unchanged. Charges are not necessary. The neutron mass goes to double neutron masses. This case would correpond to dark matter.The constant density of matter in the foreground shows the generation of matter. The invariant of special relativity contains time, length and velocity of light in the form of power two. The Planck-time, Planck-length and Planck-mass in power of two allow for the dynamics therefore dimensless factors as even powers of v/c. This gives by geometrical series the slowing of time of moving clocks and shortening of moving measuring sticks, also in this way the velocity dependency of mass follows. Generalized fine structure constants or generalized interactions of arbitrary number follow in a natural way by multiplication of the coupling constant by an even positive or negative power of the dimension of a length. A relation exists between the naked gravitational constant G and the quantum action h. At first the velocity of light (frozen light) c follows from the attraction law of Newton if the mass of the electron is taken as the mass of the rotating light with elementary length as orbit radius. Further the quantum action results proportional to k of the universe as angular momentum by the product of the proton mass proportional to 1/k and the radius of the elementary particle with the elementary length proportional to k and the velocity of light proportional to k. Hence the angular momentum as the quantum action is beside the expected numerical value equally proportional to k. The same result follows from the fine structure constant of gravitation. The energy of the rotating light wave is hc/radius equal h dot wave length lambda of the light dot the corresponding frequency ny divided by the radius. As a stationary wave is the wave length lambda proportional to the radius. With the frequency ny of the light wave the energy is therefore given by h dot ny. Electric and magnetic fields are perpenticular to the direction of the polarized light propagation. Electric charge and magnetic fields are defined. The angular momentum is independent of the velocity of light and therefore also the electric charge. The angular momentum of the stationary light wave is quantized, this also holds for the matter wave and the correponding wave lenghts gives the de Broglie relation. Therefore the foundations of quantum mechanics are established. With the proton mass in the Newtonian attraction law an increased velocity of light proportional k respectively to kk follows. With the elektron mass however in the attraction law follows the velocity of light proportional to 1. By the transformation of the increased (kk) velocity of light to the velocity of light (proportional 1) one takes regard that the gravitation constant goes as k high 8 or for the velocity remains k high 4. The proton mass is with kk to multiplay and the velocity to divide with k high 4. The so corrected proton mass is unchanged. On the other hand for the transformation from 1 to kk the electron mass is to divide with kk and the velocity of light is to multiplay by k high 4. The so corrected electron mass is unchanged. The magnetic moment is given by the induction constant dot electric charge dot velocity of light (proprtional to 1 respectively to kk) dot elementary length or equal to induction constant dot electric charge dot quantum action divided by the proton mass respectively by the electron mass. Further the magnetic moment is proportional to k. In this way the atom of the elementary particles has been found. The uncertainity relation for space and momentum at the beginning of the universe, about 10 in power -24 sec, with the background radiation results in a correlation of space with several orders, about 10 in power of 13, larger than the distance of the horizon. Therefore the extension of the universe is determined without inflation. The ratio of the volumes in relation to the horizon and the universe is 1 to 10 in power of 39. This corresonds to the ratio of the screened to the naked gravitation constant. The screening follows to corresponding proportion of particles for small permeable and large impermeable particles after an exclusion principle and a supersymetry. The theory presented gives answers not only to elementary particles but also to the universe. The uncertainity relation for energy and time gives further for the beginning of the universe a correlation of time in the early and later universe. A time ordering is created. Other relations in which 10 in power of 40 is present: By forming the ratio for the attraction of two protons electrostatical and gravitational as k in square to k in square, because in the early universe G is proportional to k in power of 6 and m proportional to k in power of minus 2, this ratio will be proportional to 1. Electrical and gravitational forces are here in equilibrium. By forming the ratio of the radius of the horizon 1/k to the radius of the proton k in square or therefore k in power of minus 3, with k again 10 in power 13, this ratio will be 1. By forming the ratio of the mass density of the universe multiplied with the volume of the horizon to the proton mass or therefore proportional to k in power of minus 6, with k again 10 in power 13, this ratio will be 1. The constant energy density in the foreground of the universe gives for the beginning of the universe an 10 in power of minus 40 enlarged electron mass or the universe begins from an eletron with the naked gravitational constant. Further with the constant of Boltzmann one can define a Plancktemperature of 10 in power of 13 degree of Kelvin, divided by 10 in power of 13 gives the actuel background temperature. The measured velocity of light 3 dot 10 in power 10 cm/sec in the foreground multiplied with the above mentioned k 10 in power of 13 must be equal to a unknown velocity of light in the background multiplied with 10 in power of 21. This gives a new second velocity of light in the background of 300 cm/sec or the same numerical value independent of the unity of length with the Bohr-Radius as unity length. In the foreground one defines a Bio-radius as product of Bohr-radius and 10 in power of 8. The velocity of light in the foreground is also independent of the unity with the Bio-radius as unity of length. The second velocity of light results also from the screaning of gravitation by the factor 10 in power of 5 and the electrical screaning by the factor 10 in power of 3 for k. With the fundamental Bohr-radius of the hydrogen atom as wavelength follows the frequency of the background radiation. The importance of the velocity of light in the background lies on the Planck-mass with the naked gravitational constant as transition of the protonmass to the electronmass further on the Planck-time with the screaned gravitational constant leads to the same Planck-time finally the Planck-length with the naked gravitational constant results in the Bio-radius.The Bio-Radius multiplied by 10 in power of minus 4 gives the radius of biochemistry and again multiplied by 10 in power of minus 4 the radius of the atom. Together with the Planck-time for the naked gravitational constant follows the velocity of light in the background. The finestructure constant for the gravitation changes the protonmass to the electronmass. The reverse is valid for the weak interaction. This means also that matter and forces have the same origin for the gravitational and the weak interactions. The gravitational interaction is determined in analogy as in the case of the frozen ring of light with the electron. In the place of the light are gravitational waves with the quantum of energy -h dot ny and the velocity c=lambda dot ny. This can be compared with glueons and for three rectangular rings, which give knots as colour charges, with quarks respectively with vectorbosons. Many physical and astronomical data are products of 10 in power of 3 and 10 in power of 5. Therefore relations exist between the extensions of the universe and the horizon and further of the horizon to the elementary particles finally between the Bohr-radius respectively the Bio-radius and the frequency of the background radiation. 19. The Lorentz contraction of a measuring stick can be explained by a substratum of ether. A body moving with velocity v has according to Galilei relative to the ether the velocities c + v and c - v. With the dimensional analysis the geometrical mean gives a contraction factor (( c+v)(c-v)) 1/2 = (c2 - v2) 1/2 ~ ( 1 - (v / c) 2 ) 1/2 . 20. With a synchronization of coordinate clocks in different reference frames by setting the hands of these clocks from a fixed reference frame the definition of same time events is given. Further the definition of unity of proper time with a light clock for the two ways of light the Lorentztransformation of point 19 are derived logicaly without any further assumtions. Hereby the physical significance of these transformations are clarified. The synchronization of coordinate clocks can also be reached by a slowly transport of these clocks and exactly with correction terms. The comparison of the two types of synchronization can test e.g. the true synchronization of the starting reference system. By a Lorentztransformation of the time component of the gravitation force to an accelerated reference frame and integration over the masses of the universe the relativistic equation of motion of Newton follows, hereby the inert force decreases with time. Further the mean density of matter is determined by the age of the universe and viceversa. The gravitation force dominates the electrical force in the early universe. Gravitational atoms are possible. The functional variable k of light velocity is a fundamental object, because beside a stable gravitational force instable solutions are found, which correspond to the elementary particle families. Apart of Fermions also Bosons are constructible solutions. Or more exactly: Consideration of the energy of the gravitation atom in analogy with the electric atom shows mainly three physical possibilities, in fact for the energy proportional to k in power of 2, to k in power of 3 and k in power of 5. These three cases correspond to the three families of elementary particles, hereby is shown that it has to be the gravitational energy in which also the whole universe is involved. Inside a particle family Hadrons and Leptons are distinguished and differ considerably ln rest mass. An explanation follows in the same line as the removel of the Schwarzschild singularity with the negative field energy. The virtual total energy goes to zero at a critical density of energy for the developing universe in a manner that the velocity of light in the foreground is unchanged from this side also as there defined length and time. The observed energy in the singularity is reduced by a large factor so an assumption of dark matter is not necessary. The mathematical expression for the light velocity in the case of compact matter contains length and density of matter which themselves depend on velocity of light. The solution in this expression for velocity of light results in two branches so that to a given density and radius of an object three or one solution exist. Besides to massive objects an interpretation for elementary particles for high and low mass follows.The high mass Quark particles correspond to the high mass Leptons and the low mass Quark particles however correspond to the Neutrinos. Finally the masses of the elementary particles are ordered inside and outside of the families. The continuation of this doubling gives 1, 2, 4, 8 and so on particles. The point singularity can be replaced by a line singularity or a string. The integration of the potential along the line gives a logarithmic behaviour in function of the distance. This singularity as a black channel can be removed in the same way with corresponding results as the point singularity. The plate or membrane has a potential proportional to the distance from the plate without any singularity on the plate. If gravitation forces are prevailing a string in a form of a torus can be quantized as a double curl. The cylindrical surface of the torus and the torus itself rotate around their gravitational centers. With surface masses proportional to the radius respectively and a constant string strength the quantization in these two cases is different. For the cylindrical surface of the torus the quantum number for bounded states has an upper bound also determined by the negative field energy as boundary condition for the logarithmic behaviour. For the whole torus an upper bound is also present. In the first case the radius of the cylinder and therefore the correponding quantum number has a further upper bound. Therefore only a finite number of quantum states are possible. With these torus atoms a correspondence to heavy elementary particles can be established. The combination of the two rotations results in matter paths which may be closed only after several rotations so that fractional quantum numbers are possible. In this way Fermi and Boson particles are explained. Contrary to the mass of elementary particles their charge and angular momentum are constant. Charge is a quantum state of matter. By a superposition of two moving particles with opposite properties on the torus the total angular momentum is zero, albeit a "state of charge" is defined. The product of electrical and magnetic elementary charge is in the same way as the angular momentum proportional to the quantum action, therefore fractional charges are also possible. A selection of these quantum states may be given by an unbroken higher symetry. In analogy of the naked electric charges of the Coulomb law can be defined a product of naked colour charges by a factor of 10 in power of 5 higher than the corresponding screened colour charges. The corresponding light velocities of colour of the gluons are by the factor 10 in power of 5 smaller than the velocity of light of photons. The velocity of light of photons for screened electric charges is by a factor of 10 in power 3 smaller. Because quarks carry also electric charges it follows from both effects a light velocity by a factor of 10 in power 8 smaller than the velocity of light of photons, but this is the second new velocity of light, therefore a relation of the weak, electrical, strong and gravitational interactions and the whole universe is established, between microcosmos and macrocosmos are close relations. The first velocity of light of photons is better called a velocity of light of Bose, the second velocity of light a velocity of light of Fermi. It is obvious to explain this by a supersymetry, because for e.g. beside a photon a photino, beside a gluon a gluino, beside the graviton a gravitino should exist. By this transformations appears in the same way a factor 10 in power of 8 as product of 10 in power of 3 and 10 in power of 5 in the ratio of the energy of proton to electron and to neutrino, hereby the same energy for a particle family in the foreground is supposed, the neutrino behaves as the photon. The frequency of the background radiation follows from the comparison of the energy of the photon to the energy of the proton. The backround radiation is not a side product of the universe but governs the growth of the universe by itself. From the obove mentioned fields and their laws are also expected physical effects. The interaction of charges of colours can analogous to the electric charges deduced from a variable velocity of light with the matter wave. 21. The screening by the factor 10 in power of 40 for gravitation masses can have different contributions. First the substrate of ether (vaccum) which surounds the elementary sphere is polarized. Further a potential barrier on the surface of this elementary sphere for the gravitons. Finally outside the closed light wave also many coverings of closed waves of gravitons, whose negative field energy screens the inner gravitation field. In this last case by symetry it should exist repulsive masses also by overscreening or inversion. Also combinations of the above mentioned effects are possible. Literatur: 1. E. Muff, Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 71, Separanda 1, Seite 29, (1998). 2. Verschiedene Manuskripte hauptsächlich: a) Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, b) Aethersubstrat und Relativitätstheorie. Autor: Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. 30.10.99 5.05.2011 Addendum The physical importance of the usual metric field can be shown by an extended Kaluza theory including the electromagnetic potential field and a scalar gravitational field as further metric elements. Besides the four dimensional curvature scalar and the energy density of the electromagnetic field also the interaction energy density of the usual metric field with the vector field and the interaction energy density of the usual metric field with the gravitational field strength follows. These terms modify the resulting field equations.
Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4,CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. The author has shown in his new physics that the energy value of the ground state E of the atom is proportional to the portion of velocity of light k* as E proportional k*and the radius r of the atom proportional to 1, but for the portion of velocity of light k as E proportional to 1 and r proportional to k (total velocity of light proportional to kk*). For a small radius of an atom one has k<<1, where new states are to be expected, with k=k* the energy value of the ground state is increased. But for k << 1 << k* the ground state is decreased. This state of the atom is called tomon. Between the ground state of the atom and of the tomon a potential barrier may be expected. The transition from the atom to the tomon results in a gain of energy, instead the inverse transition from tomon to the atom goes with the inexhaustable reservoir of the zero-point-energy. The transition over the potential barrier from the atom to the tomon is facilitated by a catalyser which reduces the hight of the potential barrier. With the catalyser one has an inexhaustable and clean energy source without radioactivity. The new physics presents many alternatives, which are unknown by the old physics. For the realisation of these ideas all rights are reserved for the author. Literature: 1. E. Muff, Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 71, Separanda 1, page 29, (1998). 2. Different manuscripts especially: a) Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, b) Aethersubstrat und Relativitaetstheorie. Author: Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. 10.6.2001.
From the new physics follow the important points of view: 1. After the revolutionary perceptions of Copernicus, Kepler, Galilei and Newton mankind is no more in the center of the world. Rather the universe got a central position. This situation is expressed in an absolute time and in an absolute space. 2. Since Einstein this used view has changed. Every man or every observer has his own center. Space and time are for every observer different and infinitely many universes are existing.The old achievements are here questionable and are replaced mostly by unclear views. 3. A detailed investigation of the Einstein view has given many controversies. The original significance of many notions has been lost. By a consequent implementing of these ideas also energy and momentum loose their clearness, nevertheless the corresponding general relativity has not been rejected. This is explained by an apparent agreement with experimental facts. A more detailed investigation shows that this explanation is no more valid today. 4. The relativistic theory is based on the dogma of a constant velocity of light. Nevertheless the direction of light was allowed to change, but the value continues to be fixed. An analysis of the hydrogen atom shows that the velocity of light in the background is almost in a large amount variable. From the energy balance of the restenergy of a particle in the gravitational field this dependency can be calculated exactly. Further from this velocity field the proper time and the length of a measuring stick can be calculated, also the restmass depends from the velocity of light in the background. 5. Not only light but all matter with the appropriate matter wave shows a deviation of the path in the velocity field. From this follows the attraction law of Newton. The motion of the perihel is absent, because the restmass depends here on the velocity of light in the background. The motion of the perihel follows rather from the classical mechanics of Newton by the flattening of the planets and the sun. A natural transition from quantum theory and classical mechanics can be established. 6. From the shortening of a measuring stick in the direction of motion and the definition of simultaneity and the proper time with a light clock the Lorentz transformations follow. The constancy of light in the foreground is a consequence of definitions. A philosophy of space and time for the foundation is not afforded, also a dogma is superfluous and false doctrines are avoided. 7. A curvature of space or even a twisted space in the case of a rotating mass are here views without sense, which rather must be based on a variable field of velocity, a field which determines also the unities of measuring sticks and clocks. 8. A gravitational field and a metric field must be distinguished. The negative field energy of gravitation shows that the equivalence principle is not exactly fulfilled. Small bodies have a stronger attraction. Further the singularity of a black hole can be removed. 9. With a constant density of energy in the foreground the velocity of light as a function of time is determined through the creation of the universe. This density of energy is in relation to the Hubble constant. A big bang is not existing, but the redshift follows from the change in time of the velocity of light. Man is not in the center of the universe, because e.g. the length of a measuring stick is variable in respect to time and space. 10. Further it is shown that the attractive force of masses changes according to the creation of matter in the universe and that it decreases from large values. Likewise the attraction of the earth satisfies this law, so the earth extends continuously. 11.A good physics leads to the limits of the knowledge. In place of the visible world is nothing, this means voids and holes, which move in a invisible world, which is something. The brain with his tools consists itself as an optical world and is completely subject to optical illusion. Many statements a priori about the brain itself are contractory, because they concern after Kant the absolute thing and transcend the limits of knowledge. The absolute thing was in the past physics as ether now as vacuum denoted. The ether can only be infered indirectly, his laws must not conform to the laws in the visible world.The intellect a priori on the other hand disposes about notions which prove right but which cannot a posteriori be verified, to that belongs for e.g. also the notion of simultanety. Just reverse, where is nothing is no object, space and time are for Kant even subjective notions. 12. The fact that in the universe continuously new matter is created, beginning with the electron to the actual density of matter, shows that a method must exist, e.g. tomons, to gain energy from inexhaustable sources. This possibility follows from a variable velocity of light, a constant velocity of light excluses this progress. The realisation of this knowledge claims also nowadays superhuman forces, this means that humanity is now no better than yesterday, because the same poblems in new clothes yesterday and today are constructed. The new physics was created without any official or private help and with obstacles. All inventions on these bases are therefore property of the authers society, the capitalism is not allowed to take any advantage of it. 13. By a missing understaending the physics uses as next possibility a selfinteraction of the fields. Not a better way results in the economy (liberalism) with selfregulation. This means that invented principles are prefered against experience. In the theory of relativity ad hoc principles are formulated to simplify with mechanical causality and total geometrization without conservation laws. The economic liberalism uses a mystical causality, i.e. the dwarfs do it without any help. In both cases the society is all and the individuum counts nothing. Typical is here the selfevidence in a fixed direction without any alternative mode with the adjoined pseudoproblems which is the result of the cult of stars. These elites go the way of fault doctrines. Overwhelming support of organisations are connected with silence and manipulation and financial and moral destruction of the individuum, and importent things are created without any information. Only power is aimed and followed, the world picture is changed according to the needs. The industry takes benefits nowadays from the large and expensive research thanks to the lukrative liars of science. The access of research is locked and for the future no more accessible. The largest part of scientific publication are not usable and serve in a huge amount as a measure for the scientific competence of an author. False authoreties manipulate the official opinion, therefore it is not curious that these must be destructed for a new beginning. The physics nowadays is based on wrong assumptions and is completely false.The whole physics must be reformulated and written a new. The idols with her false doctrines make look stupide the whole mankind over hundred years and must be destroyed. The reductionism nowadays in physics is with local mechanics a pure materialism and contradicts e.g. to the global quantum mechanics. The same method trays in mathematics to reduce the continuum (quantus) to the discrete (quantum) albeit they belong to different orders of beings. Further the formalization of mathematics has its limits, because mathematics without content results in a pure playing. E.g. the axiom of choice has a meaning as regards content, which is lost by a large formalization. Further depending on which way a straight line is experimentaly fixed as shortest distance an Euklidian or Noneuklidian geometry is defined. The question of the real geometry is a false problem because in a plane or on a curved surface for both geometries models are possible. The application of an Euklidian geometry is always possible. The most indoctrinated scientifics are catched from ideologies and work on hopeless pseudoproblems which is bounded to a waste of money, necessary is an open mindedness in front of the reality and especially for the nature, with human beings who are concious of human knowledge. When nowadays the discriminating loughing instead of a clarity, even of the so called exact science is useual, how much more must other domains be reinvestigated, so that real progress must not be impeded. E.g. the pharmaceutical industry produces medecine, which is not remedy but does fight against symptoms and have severe side effects. This shows that research is not taken serious and is neglected. That these products are put on the market proves that a large avarice of money prevails. On this way can a physician decide himself like a god as master over life and death. 14. The variable velocity of light gives partly other results compared with the actual used theory. Especially the rotation of the perihelion is absent. The good result between actual theory and experiment is only apparent. This is probably a pure accident, on the other side large perturbation calculations are affordered and classical contrbutions are neglected. Astonishing is also a same good result in quantum field theory, e.g. for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. Also here perturbation calculations are used with unsound renormalisation. In both cases an examination is difficult because computer programs and handfixing are involved. But it is not expected that calculation are treated subjectively, albeit a direct control is not possible. It also must not be, that by this doping a ranking and a price is presented. 15. The observable part of nature can easily be described. But a physical deepening of it is not reached and is often associated with difficulties. Matter is quantummechanical continuously destroyed and continuously again created. i. e. the existence of it must be maintained every moment. This goes with fixed laws, which are to be expected unchanged, because the world would decay to a chaotic nothing or would be constructed out with new principles and laws. With this laws the beeing is put into a continuously conservation of the world. The description of nature and the finding of the laws of nature in a most united connection is the task of scientist of nature. The interaction linked with it is never defined as a whole, so that always again new and unexpected things are appearing especially in a dialectical process. The beginning of it are definitions which under themselves and with reality must be in agreement. A physics alone with definitions and tautologies is a possibility, which cannot be linked with reality. In fact definitions must almost be in agreement with real contents, this can only be done in a way of a historical process, where definitions are the beginning. This is to compare with the introduction of the tautologic notion of force, which only succeeds after a long time and becomes a content by a link with other matter, it is the principle the method of trial and error. 16. The principle of relativity must only be estimated as a trial. Since a long time principles have been used. Ampere determines from principles the interaction of two closed circuits of currents without knowing at that time the corresponding laws of nature, namely the laws of Biot-Savart and the Lorentz force, thereby no angular momentum is derived. The physical laws lead to forces in the direction of the connection of the line elements of the two circuits of currents and further to forces in the direction of the two line elements, which give local different angular momenta. If the corresponding term of the other circuit of current for the symetry of the line elements in both cases is added as mean the principle of action=reaction is valid for the line elements, because this is the mean of the forces on the line elements. The dynams on the two circuits of current are opposide and equal. The first symetric term gives the force on the two circuits of current, the corresponding angular momenta are opposide and equal, the second also mean term is a pure angular momentum with the same property because of the symetrizing in both circuits of current. The descriped procedure can be considered as a renormalisation for the local conservation laws. This renormalisation can be founded on laws. The magnetic field of the first line element gives rise to a force on the second line element, the reaction goes back to the first line element. On the other side the magnetic field gives for the second line element a force on the first line element, the reaction goes back to the second line element. The arithmetic mean give the forces on the line elements, which fulfil the action=reaction principle, this method is more general. A special case is the rotor and stator of electromechanics. The selfinteraction of only one closed circuit follows by superposition of two circuits as a specialisation. A generalisation consists in the description of the moving path of two arbitrary elastic circuits. Further generalisation goes from forms of points through lines and brans with different interaction e.g. as dislocations. The use of principles and doctrines shows that allied errors survive during centuries. Many things which are considered as right are wrong and vice versa. Considering the obove force in the direction of the connection of the line elements, it follows a correction to the law of Coulomb by a factor 1 minus square of radial velocity divided by the velocity of light, this gives 1/3 as contribution to the motion of the perihelion, if the same law of Newton for the mass attraction is assumed. Another derivation from a dimensional analysis follows with c point delta t plus or minus delta r as retardation factors. Powers of this factor lead to any value of the motion of the perihelion. If one assumes a spin 0 for the gravitation quanta against spin 1 of the light quanta a threefold degree of liberty is possible, with this power a correct value of the motion of the perihelion is given. However the effect of the retarded potentials has here not been especially investigated. A time dependent distribution of mass gives a solution of the relativistic Poisson equation as time dependent retarded potential. For a time periodic mass follows a propogating wave. The corresponding field of force gives an energy density which propogates as radiation, but because of the low frequency of changes these are mostly small. Generality of a time dependent velocity of light is reached in changing there the time independent potential by the above time dependent potential. Because k with different definitions itself is not dependent on k one can consider the potential inside k as independent of k. By the acceleration therefore a time dependent potential as time integral of acceleration dot velocity can be defined. This time potential is nothing else than the expression of kinetic energy in place of the space potential gives the Lorentztransformations. The analytic mechanics shows the symetry of both potentials. Every force and every velocity are such potentials. A unification follows, if one puts in k the sum of the different potentials. Conversely from this can be constructed the field equations. For free falling bodies the energy is constant and therefore also k and vice versa. The energy and the velocities of light proportional to k can have arbitrary values and show the behaviour of a kind of tachyons. The transformation of tachyons to normal particles goes over k with v/c from group velocity puting it equal to the reciprocal value 1/k with c/u from phase velocity. The quantum mechanical relation between group velocity and phase velocity gives the behaviour of light velocity for normal particles. Normal particles and tachyons behave reciprocal. For the universe this means a further mechanism for the creation of energy. From an imaginary mass follows an imaginary wave length further an imaginary phase velocity and finally a growing amplitude. If one replaces for tachyons v by v+c or -(v+c) one gets in place of the Lorentztransformation a new transformation group. Also for this is the theorem about the addition of velocities only dependent on the definition of simultanity but not on the k-factor. Further the addition of two superluminous velocities gives an underluminous velocity. This is a furher relation between tachyons and normal particles. The primary laws of the classic analytic mechanics give the secondary laws of relativistic mechanics in the sector of the tachyons. A further application from the tachyons to the normal particles complete this theory. Hereby is to take account, that normal particles have a term of interaction between the velocity potential and the space potential, which leads to the known limit velocity of light for these particles. It gives matrices P and Q different from zero with P.P=0 and Q.Q=0 but with interaction P.Q different from zero. Conversly the square roots of the potentials with the above matrices and transposed matrices multiplied will give the classical expression of the energy. The same results follow from a dimensional analysis from the product of the sum and the difference of both velocities. The matrices show the commutator relations, with covariant momentum for P follows as with the gauge transformations the other interactions. This interaction between space and time shows the difference between Galilei- and Lorentztransformations. Therefore the special relativity is also reduced to additional forces. A minimal content is necessary for a semantic closing of a formalistic theory. The discrete transformations CPT have local charactor and are not further analysed. The Lorentz transformations have a symetry, which leads to a group and finally to the conservation of the momentum. In forward direction follows an arbitrary factor 1/k whilst independently of k the velocity of light has the same value, in the backward a factor 1/k' with the same properties. If one supposes for both directions the group properties, one has k=k'. 17. In his theory of colour Goethe polemizes with right against Newton. The theory of light of Newton goes out from a pure corpuscular character of light and can with the actual conception not be maintained, because the wave character of light is essential for the interpretation of the phenomena of coulor. With Goethe colours result at the transitionzone bright to dark. In the case of a variable velocity of light the same phenomena results on the surface of the solid state at the transition solid state to vacuum, so Goethe is with this possibility on the right side. His observation corrspond to real physical facts which are to be taken into account. Further he described the laser principle in a letter from Italy. Certain crystalls show in the dark a coulered afterglow after the exposition in the day light. Contrary to reductionism is white light for Goethe a state more than the sum of its parts. The act of observation gives colour light, especially the rims force the colour state. This point of view is more general, if effects of all boundaries are taken into account, but this is not the case with Goethe. Finally the difference between Newton and Goethe. The negative spectrum of Newton of the ground colours violet, green, red gives as mixture a dark white. Goethe discovers optical a new spectrum with purple as bonding of red and violet and give the positive spectrum of the ground colours yellow,purple,blue, these result as a bonding in a bright white. Corresponding colours of the two spectra are complementary. The colour circle closed by purple shows that from the negative spectrum follows the positive spectrum and vice versa. I.e. violet and green give blue, green and red give yellow, red and violet give purple and vice versa yellow and purple give red, purple and blue give violet, blue and yellow give green. The quantum field theory shows that in the field of light quantum processes take place, interaction till supersymetry are possible. Light field mixed with different frequencies (coulors) are in interaction, so different phases are possible also with bondings, especially with large frequency differences as purple from red and violet, because the temperature background radiation is small. In addition physiological processes of the eye are involved. So classical description for a complete theory is not sufficient. The good gift of observation shows Goethe as a great scientist and artist. The above mentioned examples of Goethe and Ampere show how good observation and logical thinking or practic and theory in a dialectic process complete each one another. 18. The flow of things go through the canals of material effective causes and spiritual final causes most parallel with one another. Or are spirit and matter different aspects of the same thing. It rests time to realise this knowledge for the progress. Or is it so as Leonardo da Vinci says, that after the death often only full latrines remain. The nature is not constructed in a manner that we can not understand its laws. Logical aequivalent to: The nature is constructed that we understand its laws. But psychological it is not aequivalent because it shines through: The nature is constracted in a manner, that we can not understand its laws. The logic brings a reduction of the material content. The inbeded genom in biology has the same function. The genom alone leads to a play and a pathology without content that is without cover and without environment. 19. With large matter density the distances between particles are very small, so the velocity of light goes to small values, therefore the mass goes to large values without additional masses. No black holes with many sun masses are necessary to explain the large attraction. A factor till 10 in power of 9 has to be expected, if the atomic radius is compared with the elementary length. The transition goes with a large output of energy. This discovery is worth a sacriface of hundred oxs. The same way gives with the elementary particles for the weak interaction with a hundred fold smaller elementary length a round hundred fold larger proton mass for the vector bosons, but now is used the naked gravitation constant. The finestructure constants show further, that the naked coupling constant of the weak interaction is so large, that the interaction range is reduced with a factor 1000. The corresponding smaller velocity of light gives the large mass of the vector boson from the proton mass. The further smaller interaction range of the other families of particles with larger masses gives with a smaller light velocity a larger bosonmass with the same finestructure constant. Analogueous to the weak interaction one expects bosons with large masses for the large naked gravitation constant in the transformation of hadrons to leptons. Finally the strong interaction has no screening and is in this respect simpler. But the gluons carry a colour charge compared with the photon, which exists without electric charge. Even so the quantumelectrodynamics can be enlarged to a quantumchromodynamics. The growing liberation and unfolding starting from the gravitation interaction till the strong interaction is shown in growing diversification of the elementary particles. How far is it possible to reduce the number of different waves of matter, gravitational mass, electric charge and colour charges, especially the different charges. Reduction in the sense, that the photon is composed of three gluons, the graviton of two photons. The effect of colour charge should give the spin of the gluon. In this respect it must be noticed, that even at earlier times e.g. from Descartes and Rudolf Steiner different and necessary but probably not sufficient types of aether were distinguished. The mass of the vectorbosons and X-bosons differ by the different interaction lengths and therefore dimensions inside the elementary lengths for the grand unified theory (GUT) as Novalis had assumed in his fragments: No phaenomena and force can be explained by itself. In a chain is one as the other and only different by his neighbouring modified. With the gravitation equation of Einstein an iteration process can be defined, in puting the light velocity constant, but the energy and momentum and gravitation constant from the fine structure constant follows a variable velocity of light. From the metric tensor one calculates for every step of the iteraction the shortening of measuring sticks and the slowing of clocks and from this the corresponding variable velocity of light. In the same way one can these gravitation equations renormalise for a constant angular momentum, by compensating for a rotating mass or a gyroscope the effect of a comoving aether or the curvature of space. Contrary to the geometry of Euklid the geometry of Riemann brings a breaking of symetries, which results in a renormalisation of the conservation laws with additional fields and particles. The original gravitation equations of Einstein can be valid in an early universe, where energy, linear momentum and angular momentum are locally defined, but where the corresponding global conservation laws are not valid. With the same right as for the metric tensor of rank 2 in place of electrodynamics with spin 1 a chromodynamics with spin 3 would to have introduced, i.e. for the vector potential stands a tensor potential of rank 3. The possible correponding field equations would then be tried with a metric tensor of rank 4, this again in a early universe. A possible chromodynamics in analogy with Maxwells equations can be constructed. From the tensor potential of rank 3 in forming the divergence with any two indices gives vectors. The three vectors shall be coplanar perpenticular to the spin and form a equilateral triangle. The three triangle points form the three colour charges. Generalisations are the five platonic bodies, which correspond to the esoteric forces. The contraction of two indices gives also three vectors. By forming the rotation follow the field equations in puting on the right hand side the temporal derivation of the other two of these vectors, on the same side are also the currents of the same colour charge. Solutions of these equations are also chromowaves. Quantisation of these gives chromoquants following nonabelian gauge transformation. In the early universe is the quantum action h proportional to k, therefore the locality and time are very undefined because of the uncertainity relations. It follows that from two integer spin values in place of spin 0 also the spin value 2 is possible, from the spin three spin values in place of spin 1 also the spin value 3 may exist. In the early universe was no matter, which determines the symetries nor Newtons law of movement effective, therefore one cannot speak for this state of conservation laws. Without Newton it also gives no wave equation and therefore no charge conservation. The uncertainity relation gives as very selden event virtuel matter for the beginning of the universe and the further growing from this following the laws of growth of the universe. 20. Is the future of a free research assured? The dominance of the USA should be realized in all domains, also even in research. The awakening of this arrogance after the shock of sputniks and Vietnam has provoked a chaotic activity. This is shown in a flow of almost unusable publications in which even good things are lost. This shock wave has expanded worldwide in educational institutions. Only those things are true,which USA in her ideology are estimating as right and even in science. Alternatives are hindered under false prejudice and new pictures of enemy are created because only narrow minded calvanistic opinions should serve for the conservation of imperialism. This is a pure false believe and toxic for a free research. The freedom between science and state that is from capitalism is a necessary condition that culture, if one can still speak of a culture, is not suffoced or disappears. The existing institutions must not be destroyed, but reconstructed with creative persons who do sincere research. On this results are to be doubted, especially those which cannot be verified immediately. Further the libido, also those which convert still living human beeings into apes, is the consequence of the capitalistic consumption society. The apes have not a global government but a reign following Bakunin. 21. Ethical not acceptable are albeit those responsable politicians, who recognize these dangers but do not speak clearly about it or reduce the importance and even are silent in order to get personal advantages. Conversily also those peoples are not to be accepted, who expect large profits from these counter measures. The specialisaced scientist lacks a philosophical education, which avoids shine problems and reductionism. A terrible and monsterous missing of knowledge and a naivity in a splended historical background has now expanded. Especially the philosophy of nature of Demokrit and Boscovich for the atomic theory of Descartes for the whirl theory are the aspect of the new physics. 22. How is it possible, that the USA destroy the world with capitalism, the envirement pollution, the global connection in so far as a cancer. Hereby is the EU a metastase of this cancer. The sucking knobs on the body of people are the state, the churches, the banks, the medicine and other parasites. What perturbation is necessary to produce this negative situation from a seemingly a positive state. Clearly small effects are sufficient to lead the world in this abyss. This means that the evolution till today is a bad evolution, which can only be conducted by suitable efforts from a metastable state to a stable state. Hereby these efforts are not to be taken as opportunity to make further aggressions. 23. It may not be, that a state calls another state a villain state, but himself leads a scientific villain business. It may not be, that the known scientific deceits are only the tip of an iceberg. It may not be, that a sincere researcher is misled by false problems from false assumptions and therefore further scientific progress is hindered. 24. The media and politics have a definition of truth, which sustains the official meaning and a false, which differs from this. I.e. by Schopenhauer that the undefined will determines the action. This definition however with content is by Wittgenstein always nonsense. But in mathematics a relative truth is known, which proves with models by interpretation with content and covering of notions. The official meaning is determined mainly by the powerful, the capitalism, hypocrisy, egoism and so on. The wages dependent knights look for a strictly observation of this state. 25. Even earlier were scientific plagiarism used, e.g. Newton looses no words about the essential contributions and support of his contemporary Hooke. After the death of an opponent his results are taken without respect in a lightly changed form without mention of the true author. The Lorentz transformation are taken from Einstein with a new interpretation, which is not really an interpretation but a false absolute making, and is given as his creation, believing that he was the first to understand this matter. The name of Lorentz could not be eliminated, because Lorentz was still living at this time. The author does not hope that this will happen to him in the same way. Is the interpretation right, that the equation of Maxwell with Faraday were created from nothing? It is a fact, that the precedessor MacCullagh with an ether model an essential forwork presented. From this with a fitting to reality later the equation of Maxwell were formed. Many insights are due to the contribution of a collective. The man who sets a final stone will uncertainly designed as inventor. For example for the broadcasting Marconi will be the inventor but Tesla and others brought essential contributions. 26. As conclusion one can say, that in the usual sense neither a Big Bang nor dark matter nor Black holes nor Higgs particles except black holes in the brain of physicists can be found. Many physicist derive from wrong assumptions right results and vice versa. Therefore the modern physical business will be more and more questionable, because many notions are no more well defined and lead so to false interpretations. Interpretations in the sense, that the world will be cheated, but also to new perpectives for the future of mankind. 27. The variable quantities in the fine structure constants give fixed values different from 1. From the screened variable quantities can a naked variable quantity be determined, so that the fine structure constant takes the value 1. The actuell screened variables can therefore be explained by a broken symetry analogous to the standard model for the masses of the elementary particles. The method of the fine structure constants is more fundamental and natural then the method of the standard model with an ad hoc constructed Lagrange function. This corresponds to the claim of Schelling, that the physics must be consructed. 28. The product of frequency from the energy (quantum mechanics) and the wavelength from the momentum balance(wave mechanics) of a particle gives the phase velocity as the square of light velocity divided by particle velocity. With the last relation follows the wave mechanics from the quantum mechanics and vice versa. This relation can follow from a dimensional analysis, the particle velocity as group velocity multiplied by the phase velocity. This is a simple way to wave mechanics, but why then this need of time. More general, one has on the right side of the energy balance the quantum action divided by a time, on the right side of the momentum balance the quantum action divided by a length. The specialisation for the light gives for the time 1 divided by the frequency and for the length follows the wave length. For reason of unity and symetry it must give a constant which divided by time gives energy and divided by length gives momentum, this is the quantum action. Or vice versa, because it gives a quantum action it gives also an energy and momentum conservation. Therefore another quantum action has other conservation laws as consequence. These quantum actions are further building blocks for the construction of a possible universe. After Hegel should by an unconquered reality an unconquered tool be forged. With this thesis, antitheses and syntheses should by Nietzsche finally win and dominate a truth, at first however with the crucifixion of their promotors. This means progress and not exploitation of the future as it is done by capitalism. Not only the present is not enough for him but also the past is his victim. 29. Also the interrelations in the elementary mechanics must be shown. If the force is declared as a vector, the parallelogramm of force is easy to understand. To avoid this leap of thought the movement of a mass point must be reduced with a double time integration for every force to a path vector, for this the vectoriel addition is valid with the superposition law. With simple integration follows in the relativistic case the conservation of momentum. 30. The universe is open and the environment changes in long term drastically. The need of action changes even by closed conditions also in short terms continuously. If a democraty alone can govern effectively these changes is questionable, because even by ancient people with correponding slavery gave no solution. With aristocracy and oligarchy many crises were stoped with power. The economical world is strongly networked, small changes in a knot can in a local and short term be good, but global and long term bad and vice versa, i.e. new crises come in. Also a theocracy or gurucracy or dictatorship of the makers with bundled forces destroy the world. Only the limitation of the bundeling and the methods of trax and the pragmatism without optimal ideologies can stop this. Large action lead to uncertainity. Political parties want to change the world, but do not know the consequences on the whole world, the formation of an elite is at least necessary. Ideologies as capitalism, communism and socialism destroy the world and it grows a vegetative realm in cost of others. To define an elite is not easy. The elite shall intuitively distinguish between good and bad also between true and false. These are problematic notions, because these are humanly only relative notions. But the elite offers the possibility of larger content, because the elite shall be composed of experienced people from natural sciences and human sciences. Goethe and Thomas Aquinas and order communities can be a model. It is not the same thing, if the earth itself is deleted or if the earth will be destroyed by mankind, because in long terms nature will allways find a way out to survive. If our civilisation is not able to build a future compatible elite, a better civilisation from the universe will surely sooner or later realise this, thereby our subdeveloped civilisation will be, if useable put in slavery, otherwise deleted or ignored. This also cannot be avoided by very handsome sportsman or by wicked wifes. The actual state is described by the media with an allways laughing face, which shall show the situation of humanity. In fact behind it are hided the above mentioned problems, which on this way are to be covered. These problems must be investigated and analysed, so they can quickly and in long terms be avoided. To much learning is not good, because what is now good is not so to morrow. 31. Why is it, that I am an ignored physicist or behind an open hand of my opponents even a mad minded? For this I can only say, that these opponents lead a bad affair, because these are without alternatives in the hand of the guru Einstein. But from the obove description it is clear, that the theories of Einstein are false and present a worthless matter. It is a scandal, that the innombrable shine problems, which follow from it lead to periodic milliards of francs loss of money in the charge of the tax payer. Even so we live in a democracy, this situation may not be known from people, because it would hinder the profiting industry. To declare sincere people as mad is a sign of weakness, because the obove proofs show, that the argumentation of this men, who are more makers than physicist, are to be reverted. The western civilisation will decline, because essential things are ignored by sleeping, especially by the lifestyle of the growing feministic culture. Stupidity and cowardice are here in touch with one another as in the story of Anderson" The emperor in new clothes". 32. Why exist movement and time? Here is the connection of discrete sets and continuum importent. The probability summerises denombrable sets. The continuum is not denombrable and must therefore be continuouslly covered with denombrable sets in movement. The measured time results therefore from ordered and periodic movements. What is god? A Trinity experienced in the world as Binity of God and satan, nowadays is hidden behind a loughing mask in order to reign in full power. What is act and power? The principle of man creates mind and destroys matter. The female principle destroys mind and creates matter. 33. The pure logic is without content and consists out from tautologies. The enlarged logic adds signs with content and metalogic which go beyond the aristotelic logic. The covering of the variables shows however further tautological ambiguities. E.g. the geometry shows with the axiom of parallels not euclidic geometries or without the axiom of choice results in further pathologic situations. The pure logic brings nothing, a logic with a full content with sufficient axioms is without ambiguities and supersedes the logic with missing content and can be enlarged without limits. These growing logics correspond to the best of possible worlds of Leibniz or to the absolute mind of Hegel or to the world soul of Schelling. A final reductionism in mathematics is not possible, even more in natural sciences, which are build on mathematics. 34. The universities are degenerated to a nursary school. They tray among one another to install a ranging and the students shall be ranged after marks. I.e. the copying of ideas and the learning for marks should be promoted. In this way the importend news are effectively oversleeped and a ranging of fools for the repetition in place of creation is the result. The process of creativity goes with total different laws as the actual chaotic flow allows. Good learning means are to be sustained, but this should not enable idleness and laziness. If possible acquire these people an academic degree without knowing what real research means. As selfimportent people are they during the rest of life a load of mankind. How should a credible science be established, if exclusive clubs give one-another the awards as results of copying things which are not examined whether they are true or false? Exactly these peoples are fixed at false principles in order to be favered by their authors. This will go on till these peoples are no more alive. An army of half educated people as mob sow discord and promises bread, but leave behind them stones and chaos. The aim of these master race is to reign over slavery people. They will not know, that wholly different possibilities are open in nature to break this monopole of arms, which as consolation may be discovered by subjected people. Then it is time to get rid of these potentates with her apparent atomic potentials. These remarks should contribute to a better politic of science. After thirty years of successfull work without any help of an infrastructure it cannot be logically expected that further help is possible. Also physicist lack spirituel childs which one tries to compensate by bodily childs. The first are hard and invisible, but the last are mostly linked with happyness. Also a busy participation at congresses had not changed much at these matters. 35. From a contractory theory as the general theory of relativity can as known all wanted results deduced. From this is wrongly asserted the rightness of the theory. By manipulations of the theory and the dates is this always possible. Here are not sound works but for pocket gamers tricks and falsification are opened all dors, especially if no test is possible. Under false praetexts good theories are killed. This correponds to the bad tactic of politicians, who begin in this way wars. On this unsound bases all progress is hindered. Oponents of relativity who I met were always in strong relation to nature. 36. We are now at a limit situation, where democraty splits into a mobocraty and a libidocraty. Is a envirement compatible syntheses of both possible? If not, then a way out of this impass is only possible with antihuman measures because man and animal are on this level in the whole no more distinguishable. A pretaste of this scenarious are the present conducted hypocritic wars. 37. Aside from dimensionless quantities as fine structure constants all other quantities are dependent on present interactions through the principle of complementary or the uncertainity relations of quantum mechanics, the velocity of light makes no exception. The measuring process goes over interactions, whose changed values are partially calculatet by renormalisations as the anomal magnetic moment of the electron or the Lamb-shift. Here are also inclueded the distinction of naked and screened physical quantities. Also therefore wonder above wonder of nature and cosmos, which the finitely and created worm of earth man cannot never dream of and understand. From a logical point of view man remains inside his selfrelated system, where only descriptions are possible, but Archimedes says: give me a fixed point outside and I shall unhindge the earth. 38. As mentioned above, the density of matter determines the velocity of light, which makes grow the gravitation constant. The gravitation constant is a function of the distance r of the gravitating masses. For small distances r this function is known. For larger distances r the velocity of light is calculable from the different mass densities by interpolation with the limit conditions ko for r goeing to zero and k1 for r goeing to infinity. This is done with the exponential function with the exponent -r/ro, hereby is ro dependent of the structure of the material density. The larger velocity of light may not be interpreted as larger expansion velocity of the universe. A larger gravitation constant needs not further dark matter. A larger velocity of light is also observed with neutrinos which transfer the atomic nucleus and electrons with the same charges, also large contributions come from the negative field energy of the gravitation field. 39. Concerning the growing of mass at the collaps of stars with the growing of mass by the weak interaction with reduced elementary radius shows analogous by finer matter a collaps is possible. This process can be continued till to the smallest dimensions. 40. The following letter was send to the Nobelprize committee. Dear committee. Some time ago I send you a letter concerning the Nobelprize of physics for the interpretation of the background radiation as a proof for the conventional big-bang. My work on the same matter shows that this cannot be the case(see: www.lichtgeschwindigkeit.com)and that this is a totaly faulty interpretation. An answer to my letter is still missing. This year the same Nobelprize was given to two groups for measurements, which shall prove an accelerated expansion of the universe. A sound alternative explanation goes here also another way. A variable velocity of light shows that also the gravitation constant is variable, so no accelerating expansion can take place. The reason for this difference is general relativity, which is a contractory theory and therefore without value. In giving Nobelprizes for this you sustain liars and further discredit your institution. Further details are given on my homepage www.lichtgeschwindigkeit. com. I expect an answer from you, therefore a copy of this letter goes an Seine Majesstaet dem Koenig Carl XVI. Gustav von Schweden. The reaction will be published in my homepage. Sincerely yours. 41. The global formulation presented here respects the energy conservation, the local relativistic formulation however does not. Both formulations are therefore not aequivalent, because the global formulation gives the behaviour of masses, forces and elastic constants in the gravitation field. 42. How has been said, the screening of elementary particles works with different tiny covers, which themselves are formed from quantum fields. Here are configurations possible as by the quantum hall effect, which contribute to a further screening. This in a sense of a very large resistance for a strong gravitation field and a very small resistance for a weak gravitation field. One also has to compare this with the quantities E and D respectively H and B in electrodynamics. 43. What is reality? Music makes people dance or makes dance the music play? Solution of a differential equation with time dependent limit conditions. Tao dreams that he is a butterfly or dreams the butterfly to be Tao? I observe the moon or does the moon observe me? Schroedinger observes Schroedingers cat or does Schroedingers cat observe Schroedinger? I don't observe the moon or does the moon not observe me, i. e. does the moon not exist? Observer and observed object form in quantum theory a unity, also explained by holography and synchronicity. What says poetry about this? G. Keller: Time goes not, but rests quiet. A day can be a pearl and a century nothing. J.G. Herder: A dream is our life here on the earth. Like shadows on the waves we grow and shrink and are amid of eternity. The properties of actual matter are different from that of the early universe, which first must be named spirit in the sense of the beginning was the word. 44. The responsibility is not only valuable for what has been said but also for what has not been said. Independently from this every statement is criticised. The different innumerable structures are to be examined by interpretation for semantic fulfilment. The statements are different in form and content. Over every statement can be spoken, therefore a "not statement" must not be silence, if necessery with a metalanguage. Nothing is nowadays more feared than truth and clear text, especially in politics. To prevent selfthinking freetime is channeled by media and stolen by sensless meatings. But people does not let always dupe itself. A sign are for this purpose constructed fences, which are demolished by the mob. 45. If one plots the vality content of an analysis as function versus the experimental expenditure and the theoretical expenditure then a surface results, which can be folded. After the theory of catastophy with two variables this part corresponds to a revolution or a change of the paradigma. The whole evolution can have several folds. This is to compare with economy for gain which depend on demand and speculation with catastrophic bank crash. Or aggregate states liquid and gas, the density which depends on pressure and temperature with boiling retardation or condensation. Analogous but more chaotic is wheather with warm and cold fronts. Less positive for politicians. The welfare as function of state expenditure on liberty with the fold of misery. Or the national product as function of research and development with the fold of waste elimination. Or the stability as function of peace expenditure and war material with the fold of destruction. Or analogous the function of liberty fight and terrorism and this also in view of both sides. Or order as function of right expenditure and corruption with the fold of chaos and the right of the stronger, but chaos itself can form new laws. Or the food requirement as function of food production and population figure with the fold of famine. Or the life standard as function of growing wages and inflation with the fold of savings in favour of the exploiting merchants of immovables and wage earners (indirect theft). Or information content as function of proper source and external source with the fold of shock from manipulation. Or the manipulation as function of power and corruption with the fold of revolution. Or hypercrisy as function of character and seriosity with the fold of deception. Or the beauty as function of body and soul with the fold of a monstrum. Or life ability as function of genom and learning ability with the fold of pathology. Or reliability as function of loose away and jamming with the fold of crash. Or the evolution as function of ability of fitting and learning with the fold of extinction. Or security as function of complexity and concentration with the fold of accident. Or the desease and helth as funtion of therapy and poison with the fold of dying. Or moral as function of body and mind with the fold of human bestiality. Or the welth as function of solitarity and individualism with the fold of poverty. Or the success as function of organisation and activity with the fold of desaster. Or life as function of instinct and intelligence and intuition with the fold of reality loss. Or the events as function of causality and finality and accident with the fold of surprise. Or the diversity as function of analysis and synthesis with the fold of simplicity. Or the culture and myth as function of belief and structure with the fold of chaos. Or the distinction as function of idealism and realism with the fold of frustration. Or the continuity as function of man and nature with the fold of breaking. Or the information as function of information density and mean time of memory with the fold of information loss. Or the selection as function of information overflow and utility with the fold of forgetting. Or the environment as function of luxury and comfort with the fold of devastation. Or planing as function in short time and long time with the fold of crisis. Or valuation as function of manipulation and hypocrises with the fold of loss of belief. Or the comprehension as function of the senses and given notions as tool with the fold of a limited insight and inexplicable without any structure. I. e. the explorable bounds to the inexplorable. Or the advantage as function of cost and depts with the fold of selfdept of life above the conditions of the environment. Or the exploitation as function of past and future with the fold of the misery of future generations. Or the belief as function of theism and atheism with the fold of deception and missbelief. Or the reality as function of measureable and not measureable with the fold of occultism. Or the certainity and truth as function of content and logical abstraction with the fold of a contradiction or tautology and uncertainity by stroking in a pathology. Or the harmony as function of respect and according with the fold of rupture. Or the success as function of business and tenacity with the fold of loss. Other situations are possible. These examples show, that man is surrounded by innombrable catastrophies, which are mostly due to himself. To this come the many liars on the way to truth. The surface with the fold can also be closed, if memory and future are important or reversibility one sided. 46. A screened charge goes depending on the model with distance exponentially to zero or with a power, because of the corpuscular quantum nature nearly to zero. A simple model with activated and removed charges shows, that a screened charge goes with growing radius exponentially to zero. This however is valid only till to a certain radius determined by the normed fine structure constant. E.g. this radius grows also by growing dielectric constant. This model goes also for other forces e.g. for gravitational forces. Here can the screening be asymetric by the environment, a variable gravitational constant is in place of dark matter to a local renormalisation, to compare with tides, of the gravitation to be prefered, with the transition zone of the screened charge can be investigated, the velocity of light must there be very large. 47. Archimedes says: Give me a fixed point and I shall take the earth out from the pivots. The dimensionless fine structure constants fulfil this condition and give a new physics, which puts all existing theories in the shadow. The so called black holes in the center of galaxies have not swallowed down millions and milliards of suns, but a single sun creates a neutron star or a corresponding large mass. 48. The angular momentum on the gyroscope in an orbit can be explained by the interaction of the universe on the deformed screening of the masses. With a gauge transformation an angular momentum is formed by the mass charge analogous to the electric charge an electric field. A dyname consists apart from an angular momentum on a force, which can be treated as a product of mass and velocity of light and space gradient of change of velocity of light with boundary conditions k=1 and k*, because here is not a wave but a force with constant total energy, and contributes to the motion of the perihel. By the evolution of the universe comes analogous a covariant time gradient of change of velocity of light, multiplied by the momentum and covariant time gives this a contribution to the energy of the universe. Angular momentum, force and energy show here the field of velocity of light. 49. Light is wave and photon with angular momentum, which remains by variable velocity of light k oder k* constant, This means two further degrees of freedom of light as a syntheses of particle- and wave aspect. 50. The new elementary length of Planck follows also from the gravitational selfenergy and the uncertainity relation. Inside the elementary length distance is not defined with known matter or even senseless. 51. Is the impression right, that the equations of Maxwell with Faraday were created from nothing? It is a fact, that the precedessor MacCullagh with an ether model an essential forwork presented. From this with a fitting to reality later the equations of Maxwell are formed. Many insights are due to the contributions of a collective. The man who sets a final stone will uncertainly designed as inventor. For example for the broadcasting Marconi will be the inventor but Tesla and others brought essential contributions to it. 52. Why does the electron not radiate inside the atom ? Here are valid the uncertainity relations of light, and therefore the retardation t-v/c vanishes, and no radiation is present. Further follow electrons with velocity v for a cooperate movement uncertainity relations, i.e. a retardation t-v/c vanishes also. In both cases energy and momentum are strongly correlated. The runaway electron finds here an explanation. 53. A unified theory would be in every respect homogene and monotone. The screening of the ether however brings a hyrarchy of the interactions with the factor 10 in power of 8 between life and atom.This in unlimited steps of square roots downward and of squares upwards, what corresponds to the anthropical principel. 54. Are there free negative masses? By a simultaneous creation of positive and negative masses these repulses one another so they must be at seperated places of the world or at different worlds. This is to be compared with the solubility or the solubility limit in matter. Heavenly bodies so as quasars show the possibility of other matter forms. 55. The successful standard model of elementary particles with breaking of gauge invariance uses the reductionism with large ad hoc constructive means, which seam incredible. Particles are swallowed down in new particles, there shall the Higgsboson give mass. It exists alternative and reasonable theories for the mass problem, nonobstand this will not be changed. One beliefs with this mode to be present in community in the same way as to have Jeans and a handy. 56. Supercondactivity can be explained by breaking of gauge invariance with a collaps for a wave function. Here an attraction of the electrons is realised, so the velocity of light goes to zero, this leads to a growing mass of the quantum of light so light is present only to a certain penetration depth. The wave function with many variables can as in the theory of catastrophies with faults be many valued. By a change of the variables a collaps can occur. 57. The many ideal assumtions strongly limitate the manifold of objects, e.g. the continuity of functions and their derivatives is in reality not fulfilled. The discontinuity brings mostly an unsurmountable complexity. 58. The direction of the arrow of time breaks the inversion of time of the equations, but holds the conservation of the momentum, because the inversion of time inverses the direction of velocity. Further is the probability of inversion of events very small, especiality also because space is infinate and continously new matter and szenarious appear. Disorder or entropy is growing. 59. A formal extension of the theory in the sense of Rainich and Wheeler goes in the direction of quantumgeometrodynamics, but with variable velocity of light. 60. The relativistic law of Biot-Savart fulfills also the principle of action equal reaction for the quadrature of velocity analogous to the centrifugal force, which must be explained by the rest of the universe, i.e. it gives electromagnetic interactions with the universe. 61. Aside a physical chemistry it should be a chemical physics. The stability of networks shall be completed by investigations on the instability, e.g. for frequency and amplitude of oscillations. The doctrine of god must include the wing of the mythic doctrine of satan. All transitions between good and bad must be investigated. A way forward has also a part backwards. This part is not in the focus and only scientific heroes dare to go this direction, what already in the myth of Orpheus and Euridice is shown. The successful man looks forward and goes to uncertainity. The created and final man on the search of the whole view must fail. Above this it gives signs and wonders, which as a wayleader show the occult worlds. What for man really remains is culture with senseful art and sincere science especialy the immortal works of music and literature. 62. The probalistic interpretation of quantum mechanics suposes a countable manifold. The continuum follows by movement, a static continuum is excluded, i.e. the fixed one and higher dimensional structures must not be present in a continuous process of creation and annihilation, otherwise the interpretation would not be general valid. 63. Beauty in nature and uglyness of the rest of the world is an opinion, which shows often to be erronous. To be compared with the good ethic doctrines and real life. 64. With a present magnetic field is because of the Aharonow-Bohm effect for the wavelength of matterwave in place of mv the expression /mv-qA/ with the vector potential A and the charge q, qAds/h shows to be the change of phase. 65. The physical reality is described by a complicated function of several variables but the actual physics is operating in a tangential space of a point of that function, that is in a linearised flat space, here can by an extrapolation large differences follow. 66. A qualitatively wrong theory can quantitatively mostly not be right. A quantitatively concordance in a determined domain speaks not for the correctness of the theory. A tangent or a circle to a curve can there be fitted arbitrary precisely, nonobstand the curve is not a straight line or a circle. This situation occurs by a perturbation expansion or by a renormalisation. E.g. many constants are in fact variable. Also gives the gauge theory of gravitation the angular momentum for a gyroscope and the force for the motion of the perihel of the planets. With this force follows wonderfully the planet motion inclusive the motion of the perihel. This shows, that mechanical notions are still valid. The general theory of relativity is too abstact and looses essential contact with reality. From this standpoint must the old results seem occasionaly and/or manipulated, as probably many other results of physics and science. 67. Different fields and the screening of their charges influence one another, so a strong gravitational field reduces the screened electric charge and so enlarges the volume of a solid state body, the same is valid for the charge of masses. To compare with the attraction in galaxies and the contraction of the earth surface. 68. Kant gets at the boundary with a logic of antinomies in front of the infinity of space and time. By a denumberable set theory or a topological geometry the problem is not solved. An infinate serie of metatheories shows the pathological character of these solutions, where man himself represent as god in this reductionism. This is really satanic. 69. The conservation laws follow from the theorem of Noether from the invariant Lagrangefunction. But for the whole universe the conservation laws are not valid, therefore this Lagrangefunction is not existent. This also because the most constants are variable and are to be determined on another way. 70. May it be, that at the forder frontiers some people most with a terrible intellectuel horizon form the official meaning and hinder the real progress. Here they tray to consolidate with all means power and personal advantages. Weak minded persons may not be placed in front of difficult situations. No governement is better then a weak minded governement. This in both senses of anarchism and political destruction. 71. I had a dream, that by a demonstration many people are happy in the sense of a future, without any belief in a gift, helped in a wonderful manner. I was conscious that my own forces were by widen not sufficient, but I was always in the belief that our existence is not senseless. Man has the power even at all pessimism to open the doors for future. 72. If one puts the Lagrangefunction L=E=mcc with k=1 and k=k* then follows in first order and second order an inertial mass in direction of motion with the Euler equation the law of motion for a potential with the known motion of the perihel. It gives no difference between transverse and longitudinal masses. Gravity and inert masses however are different. 73. For several bodies for every body the influence of the velocity of light of the other bodies has to be calculated. The Lagrangefunction is the sum of the energy of each body. The orbits follow from a many body problem. The action-reaction principel for forces is further in first order valid, but for more then three bodies many body forces exist. For galaxies this means large mass increase. 74. Analog and dual one puts the vectorian Lagrangefunction of the momentum with k*=1 and k or k*=k then follows from the Euler equation a law of motion. With positive or negative masses particles move on circles or remain fixed. As by Aristoteles these move to her place, as a ship, airplain or ballon or the gravitation is following physicist of France due to forces from incoming streaming particles. With positive and negative masses grows the velocity of these particles, coagulation and dispersion results. 75. The change of particle velocity or group velocity divided by particle velocity is equal to the negative change of phasevelocity divided by phasevelocity. The acceleration and therefore the force is explained by the change of phasevelocity. The mechanic and over the energy the quantummechanics show the appearence of their laws during the evolution of the universe. 76. The rotation of the direction of the angular momentum of the planetary gyroscope is given by the imaginery time derivation of the complex rotated angular momentum, which is the product of the difference of the angular velocities of the disturbed and undisturbed orbits of the gyroscope with the complex rotated angular momentum. Here touch quantumtheory and gaugetheory. Analogous can the gauge force be deduced as complex rotation with the elementary length divided by the Broglie wavelength. The imaginary time derivation is multiplied by the quantum action divided by the elementary length. The elementary length, light velocity and quantum action give here at new the new Planckconstant as hadronmass and elementary time. 77. To acquire convergence in renormalisation elementary length, restmass of particles because of breaking gauge invariance further elementray particles are introduced, all this because coupling constants are taken as unchanged. But also a splitting of distribution is proposed. For the conservation of energy is with success the singularity corrected what things hold. The dimensional renormalisation shows that a deeper cover with further particle structures are necessary. Apart from finestructure constants for the renormalisation relation as Ward-Identities or renormalisation group are used. Every particle is determined by the others. Hoelderlin says where is a danger help is near. Nature is hailing itself. For this goes k depending on the sign of the charge from zero to one or from infinity to one and from zero to imaginary infinity. This makes it possible to transport matter with superluminosity. 78. A universal language must by the boundary conditions be adaptive for many situations. She comprehends also higher predicative logic and the infinity with transfinite induction and local and temporal auxilary conditions shall follow the laws of mathematics and physics. The language with zero and one encloses also infinite sequences of symbols. 79. By the critic of language and science notion are getting more precisely and formal more determined but in matter more undetermined, so that essential different things are reduced to the same. E.g. discrete sets are reduced to continuous sets. In physics it corresponds to the uncertainity relation of position and momentum. The ordinary language is a compromise between both extremes. Because the compromise can be different shine contradiction can be possible. The half of mankind is weak minded, which leads democracy to a catastrophy.This is the three step of Hegel theses, antitheses and syntheses. Why is something and at first nothing, this question is also no answered with a reductionistic science with finality and causality. 80. An understaendig of grammar is given, if it is imbeded in a philosophy. For Descartes the I is defined, while at once the You is anounced, who in common they limit again the He. The action of persons and things are linked by the verbs. The verb accept and give means a brake of symetry by collaps so a She comes in existence with a coming of an It. Therefore three articles are given. The persons exist also ln pluriel. The statement has symetricaly most an active and passive form. Because the verb wants a determined case, new forms are given. This corresponds to a row division of classes along the philosophy of categoris and pradicatives. Mostly these are designed in german as nominative, genitive, dative and accusative. Also here new forms for persons and things are given. Time with past, present and futurs distinguish reality (being) and possibility (causality) and passive forms. In space with a movement a direction is defined. The experience space has three independet directions. Therefore the common origine of grammar in the langueges, which are distinguished only by words and forms. Analogous for music with notes and forms as pitch and rhythm. How are language, mathematics and physics formed by music? 81. Newtons law of motion gives the known motion of the perihel. Thereby is k*=1 and k or k*=k with transversal mass and the potential correspond to the gravitational force. Here one starts from force and not from energy, therefore gravitational and inert mass are different. 82. In the langage one must distinguish between object langage and meta langage. Analogous in physics between object physics and metaphysics. I.e. one has to distinguish between relative time and absolute time. 83. Collapses and phase transitions further symetry braking of different degrees necessitate boson fields. If to these fields correspond Fermi particles, e.g. Higgs particles, so the corresponding particle mass grows strongly, an exitation is not possible. These particles are therefore generated and practicaly not necessary. 84. A drop of water leads to many finer droplets. Nobody trays to prove this endstate. The same holds for the actual state of the universe, a proof leads often to shineproblems. 85. The excessive actuell speculations of theoretical physics loose the contact with reality and rest compared with past times frootless. Many existing problems are put aside. It is not so, that every new mathematical theory must be realised in nature. 86. By extension of axiomatic systems with logic and ideal elements can these be simplified and determined. E.g. follows the euclidic geometry by the second degree logic by the property of properties. If one draws with the same distance on the same side of a straight line the parallels and claims that these form the same straight line then the euclidian geometry follows. The projective geometry follows by the introduction of ideal elements. Infinite statements in the logic give the axiom of choice. Ideal elements give a determined hypotheses of the continuum. The classical axiom systems are strongly reductionistic. By the introduction inside the axiomatic system of several non reducted objects and several different logics the reality is better represented and pathologies are avoided. With ascending metatheories with different logics one gets finally to the classic aristotelic logic and further by noncontractory to the tautology A=A or to A=nonA. In the last case the theory is destroyed and all shows as hypocrises and nothing so as a production of soap spheres. Certainity about it never exists. Also semantic and modeltheory brings no help. 87. This shows the bad character of many polititian and bankers. At west the saint russia is continuously under leadership USA put in the shit. The bombejanky will his criminel past not explain. His vasalls help him however his leadership of wars indirectly by banks and direct participation. The wars in the near east show this with all details. The kneefall of Switzerland with the weakening of neutrality bring for this direct and indirect military help, thereby criminel action on the proper population are hold in secret. The life in poverty is better then to be rich with dirty money, which is actualy by the EU printed paper mostly arbitrary. The EU and USA polarize the border states. The nationalsocialism tried to unite Europe by means of war, the EU tries this by liars and hypocrises with USA ancient model. John F. Kennedy said criminels look for the power. How much is this aim now reached? 88. The evolution of progress is strongly coupled with the development of tools. As one further cooks with water, in future tools can even be better. For the invincible reality must invincible tools be fabricated. If not material but spirituel. Now finite but in infinite time infinite. 89. With the reductionism in infinity an indirect proof with the tertium non datur is more then questionable. The diagonal method of Cantor gives an indirect proof so a non denombrable set is supposed to be denombrable, but this is not the only alternative, because with it the existence of an overdenombrable set is forced. Also the proof of Goedel is similar to a diagonal method, here proofs of numberable paths are supposed. Thus the logical reductionism build his own jail in which he rests catched. 90. The philophy distinguishes different layers of beings. In technology and natural science different reality layers are known. In electronic are by fields electronic currents almost lead without power. This corresponds to the relayfunction as element of cybernetic as amplification. The small currents of nerves lead to large muscle power. In a higher layer of reality the nerves are lead with small mental power. This hyrarchy goes further above and below. The different layers of elementary particles give by a collapse large forces, which contribute to an understanding of physics. Missuse of cybernetics are e.g. drohnes and heavy construction machines, because this is an unsane intervention in nature especially by criminel capitalism. A reduction to one reality layer must break down. 91. The standard model with gauge theory is based on minimal coupling, so that renormalisation is reached. This is however a small approach to reality, which is infinite deep and where human measuring sticks are unsufficient. These facts are ignored, so that false doctrines are propogated, what by chance I recognised very soon. With a Micky Mouse democracy no profound religion is destroyed. 92. The absolutism of the notions principal of relativity in physics and denombrability in mathematics is a dangerous reduction in the so called exact sciences. The generalisation of the principle of relativity leads to contradictions. The generalisation of denombrability leads to absurdities. The success at the beginning of the principal of relativity leads later to a ctastrophy. 93. As Goethe in his poem „Allerdings“ the physics as double meaning saw, is also the actual physics more then ever known in this manner. The universe has a deepness in infinity as the actual snobistic generation not will accept. They hold a script at the eternally universe as the universe itself and expand continuesly liars with the medium of electronic litter to the people as not if sufficient dull heads are still present. Sufficency in place of wrong knowledge would be better, because we practically have no absolute knowledge. The reductionism fails at the unobserved chiffre of reality, also spirituel and material theft lead not out of this impass. This is scientific missbelief and this in our priced time. 94. A helpfull person had a conversation with an importand personality of theoretical physics ETH about my theory on the basis of internet. Nonobstand of high american ranking and with the help of further collaboraters was completely missunderstood, as often with completely new and simple facts. The time employed for the study of it was obviously very short, because no additional time in the modern university school may be disponible. The time employed is small for plagiats and existing current ideas, which are taken from highschools without a bad conciosness. Without taken contact with the author, one beliefs to get the theory on the service board, nonobstand behind it is a hard and long work of years. 95. An other episode worth to be known concerns a wellknown journalist. On the bases of my interisting homepage he tried to give an article on it in a journal. Because all interest was missing the intention could not be realised. It seems that the media only publicate what for the manipulation of the reader is necessary. It gives there only liars and angry of the truth. 96. Penrose trays to show all ways which lead to reality. For this general relativity with geometrization are in the center to unite theory of relativity and quantum theory. General relativity is in fact dead, so further progress ist to expect from quantum theory. The proposals of Penrose must be given up. The nature of matter wave must have a complex wave equation, because the results are real, the differential equations are to be local gauge invariant with other fields. 97. A whole man is without ideology. But an ideology is forced on man by giving awards, which later on mostly are without value. 98. The aim of this text is to give a short digest of the new physics, in order to present for interested people an overview. The result of the work shows that the physics construted on relativity theory is a curiosity which belongs to the waste room of the history of science. The principal of relativity especialy the claim of a constant velocity of light has to be damned, because here are contradictions. A variable velocity of light shows however no contradictions and leads beside a variable space- and time normals by a variable velocity of light to a variable mass. The consequences are immense, e.g. by a gravitational collaps follows a mass which grows in order of milliards. The universe by linear extension is by a factor of 10 in power of 13 larger then the known actual extension. Only the dimensionless fine structure constants are fixed. From this can be calculated the change of the gravitation constant. The singularity in the center of mass desappears. The deviation of the light in the near mass is also existing. From the fine structure constant can the mass of the proton and the electron be calculated. The fixed value of the fine structure constant is so to say the fixed point of Archimedes as to take the earth out of the windges. The screening of the electric and massive charges about many orders of magnitude explains the numerous phenomenae in the path of the evolution of the universe. The matter of the universe stems from the evolution of the universe and is still goeing on. From this follow other new possibilities to solve the energy problems. Matter can be understood as voids in a compact ether, i.e. where something is visible is nothing and where nothing is visible is something, i.e. man lives in a total illusion. Further details and facts are to be found in the homepage www.lichtgeschwindigkeit.com. Besides answers to cosmology it gives answers to elementary particles physics especialy to the mass problem for bosons of the weak interaction and the other interactions. The problem of faster then light of neutrinos has a solution in this frame. 1. E. Muff, Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 71, Separanda 1, page 29, (1998). 2. Different manuscripts especially: a) Vom Wasserstoffatom zum Universum, b) Aethersubstrat und Relativitaetstheorie. Author: Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland. 12.6.2001.
A variable velocity of light homogenous in a local and global way and further by space and time in a medium at rest or moving can be described by the symetric metric tensor and vice versa. In the inhomogenous case with the direction dependent value of the velocity of light this tensor is also direction dependent. E.g. inside a material in solid state this can be based on the crystal fields. In a vacuum further gauge fields have to be introduced. In the homogenous case the metric field is the corresponding gauge field, but in the Minkowskian space a variable velocity of light is still existent. Aside of the metric field exists e.g. a scalar gravitation field and an electrical vector field described by the vector potentials. These fields are unified in a six dimensional theory of Kaluza. The scalar of curvature in the six dimensions is splitted in the usual scalar of curvature of four dimensions and the density of energy of the electromagnetic field, further the density of the scalar field divided by the square of the potential itself, finally appears a second derivation of the potential. In the case of the potential the integration constant of the potential can be chosen negatively in a manner that for large distances one gets the factor ½ for the density of energy, further the terms of the gravitational field energy are arranged negatively against the terms of the electromagnetic field. It has to be noticed that the field energies of the electromagnetic fields and the gravitation field are coupled with the metric in the field equations especially by the density of Lagrange of the six dimensional space. This connection speaks once again against a general principle of relativity. For definite solutions of the field equations the covariant derivation of the six dimensional metric field as tensor density is put equal to zero. For the electromagnetic field this is a Lorentz condition, further vanishes the second derivation in the energy density for the corresponding field equation. In the inhomogenous case one has to observe once again the radiusof the hydrogen atom which is proportional to the constant of dielectricity or to the de Broglie wave length which is inverse proportional to it. If this value is generalized to a tensor then the corresponding velocity of light is direction dependent. The metric tensor is then dependent on the path direction. The energy-momentum tensor is chosen in a direction dependent way, e.g. with a direction dependent density of momentum. The affine connection and the tensor of curvature loose likewise the homogenity. The symetric field equation with the density of the metric shows this on a explicit way. The sources of the above field equations for discrete particles like mass, energy, momentum and currents follow from accessory conditions of Lagrange by variation of the densities of energy with respect to the field functions. These accessory conditions follow e.g. from the space dependent restmass as function of the velocities of light k and k* in accordance with the metric or to the requirement of a constant total energy or on the conditions for the current and velocities in the case when these are not determined by the field equations. If one considers as a test the metric field of the six dimensional space without field equations, then the geodatic equation has terms which correspondent to the Lorentz force with inverse proportional relativistic mass and the gravitation force with proportional mass. The pathes of particles as solution of the field equations in the four dimensional space respect these forces in the energy- momentum tensor. Address of the author: Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-St. Erhard, Switzerland. 11.6.2001.
A very high pressure exists inside many heavenly bodies. The matter there is supposed to be viscous in a state between solid and liquid. Every atom sustains in its neighbourhood a nearordering of a crystal symetry. Nevertheless the atoms of the lattice can be modified in the lattice configuration. The volume of the lattice can be decreased under high pressure by the transition of some atoms to tomons depending on the crystal lattice by a factor between 3 and 8. The tomon decreases his radius by a factor k << 1 and independently the negative energy of the bond will be by a factor k* >> 1 more negative, at which here the magnetic moment goes to large values. These two processes may be simultaneous or alternative. In the cubic crystal system the linear decreasing goes with the factor square root 2, indeed without the help of tomons, and it is determined by tangential touching of diagonal atoms face to face, hereby partially superpose neighbouring atoms on the edges. The same linear decreasing have cubic space centered lattices. Likewise with the cubic plain centered lattice follows the same decreasing, hereby the plain centered atom changes to a tomon. For the hexagonal close packing spheres follows contrary a linear decrease by a factor 2. A tomon in the plain of lattice is surrounded by 6 and in lattice space by 12 atoms. With an angular momentum of the electron mvr=const. follows for the state r=const. according to k* the velocity of the electron proportional k*, i.e. the magnetic moment for the tomon increases for k* >> 1 to large values. By an opposite magnetic moment of tomons versus neighbouring atoms follows in the case of a change of place of tomon and neighbouring atom an opposite total magnetisation, therefore a spontaneous change of the poles of the earth magnetisation is possible. Distant masses and charges give inertial forces and magnetic fields for moving bodies. Smaller is the effect on resting or moving masses and charges in the very neighbouring to bodies and living beeings. For living beeings with a moving blood circuit and currents in the nerve pathes and sensitive organs one expects sensations over lowsing rod, pendulum, water streams, air pressure variation,elastic earth stresses, astrology and so on. These are slow variing changes with low frequencies, whose effects are scientifically now not enough investigated. These charges give further atmospheric charges and influence the scenary of weather by droplets of different size. Because the earth kernel is decreasing by a decreasing of the gravitational force the surface of the earth increases by the quadrat of the square root 2 or by 2 (cubic) respectively as the quadrat of 2 or 4(hexagonal). In the mean one expects a threefold surface of the earth, i.e. a ratio 1:2 of the land surface to the sea surface. The tomons further supply energy and heat up the heavenly bodies. Because of the large gravity beginning life comes out from water where weight is reduced. 10.6.2001. Author: Erwin Muff, Wiberg 4, CH-6212 St. Erhard, Switzerland.